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Another interesting fact:
The entire fiber may be about the thickness of a human hair, but it is made of 2 types of glass the core and the cladding. Each with a slightly different index of refraction. The core is where most of the energy stays.
In short run, we use multimode fiber which has a core diameter of between 50-62.5 micrometers. These different modes or paths can interfere with each other in longer runs. So in applications such as this, we use single mode fiber, the core is only about 9 micrometers. Significantly smaller than a human hair.